Measuring Child-Robot Relationships


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An overview of the field

  • Belpaeme, T., Baxter, P., De Greeff, J., Kennedy, J., Read, R., Looije, R., ... & Zelati, M. C. (2013, October). Child-robot interaction: Perspectives and challenges. In International Conference on Social Robotics (pp. 452-459). Springer, Cham.
  • Van Mechelen, M., Baykal, G. E., Dindler, C., Eriksson, E., & Iversen, O. S. (2020, June). 18 Years of ethics in child-computer interaction research: a systematic literature review. In Proceedings of the Interaction Design and Children Conference (pp. 161-183).
  • van Straten, C. L., Peter, J., & Kühne, R. (2020). Child–robot relationship formation: A narrative review of empirical research. International Journal of Social Robotics, 12(2), 325-344.
  • Alves-Oliveira, P., Arriaga, P., Paiva, A., & Hoffman, G. (2021, March). Children as Robot Designers. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 399-408).
  • Hoffman, G., & Zhao, X. (2020). A Primer for Conducting Experiments in Human–Robot Interaction. ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI), 10(1), 1-31.
  • Zguda, P., Kołota, A., Venture, G., Sniezynski, B., & Indurkhya, B. (2021). Exploring the Role of Trust and Expectations in CRI Using In-the-Wild Studies. Electronics, 10(3), 347.


Subjective measures on child-robot relationship formation

  • Creepiness - Brink, K. A., Gray, K., & Wellman, H. M. (2019). Creepiness creeps in: Uncanny valley feelings are acquired in childhood. Child development, 90(4), 1202-1214.
  • Closeness, trust, perceived social support - Van Straten, C. L., Kühne, R., Peter, J., de Jong, C., & Barco, A. (2020). Closeness, trust, and perceived social support in child-robot relationship formation: Development and validation of three self-report scales. Interaction Studies, 21(1), 57-84.

Behavioral measures on child-robot relationship formation

  • Trust Game - Di Dio, C., Manzi, F., Peretti, G., Cangelosi, A., Harris, P. L., Massaro, D., & Marchetti, A. (2020). Shall I trust you? From child–robot interaction to trusting relationships. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 469.
  • Self-disclosure - Ligthart, M., Fernhout, T., Neerincx, M. A., van Bindsbergen, K. L., Grootenhuis, M. A., & Hindriks, K. V. (2019, May). A child and a robot getting acquainted-interaction design for eliciting self-disclosure. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (pp. 61-70).


Useful software to conduct research


Data that is already out there!

  • PInSoRo - child-robot social dynamics
  • Aibo Emotion Corpus - cross-linguistic emotional speech in CRI


You might not have to start from scratch

  • Opal, a generalized Unity game builder for CRI (MIT)
  • Platform for Situated Intelligence (Microsoft)
  • Many different HRI projects by Severin Lemaignan
Any additions? Contact us!